Cyril Brandt

Independent researcher and consultant:
Development, education and conflict
Education in Emergencies

Anti-racism work



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Brandt, C. O. Teachers’ Struggle for Income in the Congo (DRC). Between Education and Remuneration. University of Amsterdam, Master’s Thesis. Unpublished. 

Brandt, Cyril Owen. Les Enseignants Congolais Face à Leurs Salaires. Que Peuvent-Ils Faire? University of Amsterdam, Master’s Thesis. Unpublished.


Lopes Cardozo, M. T. A., Higgins, S., Maber, E., Brandt, C. O., Kusmallah, N., & Le Mat, M. (2015). Literature Review: Youth Agency, Peacebuilding and Education. Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from 


Brandt, C. O. (2016). Review of teacher remuneration in the DRC (consultancy report for the ACCELERE! project). Cambridge Education.


Brandt, C. O., and Flávio Eiró. 2017. “Qualitative Corruption Research Methods.” In How to Research Corruption? Conference Proceedings: Interdisciplinary Corruption Research Forum, June 2016, edited by Anna K. Schwickerath, Aiysha Varraich, and Laura-Lee Smith, 34–43. 

Brandt, C. O. (2017). Ambivalent outcomes of statebuilding: multiplication of brokers and educational expansion in the DR Congo (2004-2013). Review of African Political Economy, 44(154). 

Brandt, C. O. (2017). Constructing schools in a recurrent armed conflict in Democratic Republic of Congo. Reading, UK: Education Development Trust.


Brandt, Cyril Owen. 2018. Illegibility as a State Effect. The Limits of Governing Teacher Identification in the Democratic Republic of Congo. University of Amsterdam, PhD Thesis, unpublished. 

Brandt, Cyril Owen. (2019). “The Deployment of Internally Displaced Teachers (DR Congo): A ‘Real Governance’ Approach.” International Journal of Educational Development 66: 147-154.

Brandt, C. O. & Tom De Herdt. (2019) On the Political Economy of Data Collection: Lessons from the Unaccomplished Population Census (DR Congo, 2006-2018). Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium Working Papers 72.

Shah, R. … and Brandt, C. O. 2019. Listening to the Partners – the Impact of a Demand-Driven Support. Impact Study. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

Brandt, C. O. (2019). Teachers’ Residual Agency in a Protracted Crisis: Everyday Negotiations around Income (DR Congo). Unpublished Working Paper, 22 March 2019.

Brandt, C. O.  (online first). “Reluctant representatives of the state: Teachers’ perceptions of experienced violence (DR Congo)”. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education

Brandt, C. O. & T. De Herdt (2020). "Reshaping the reach of the state: The politics of a teacher payment reform in the DR Congo". Journal of Modern African Studies 58(1) 23-43.


Brandt, C. O. (2016). My long journey to research. Retrieved January 2, 2017, from

Brandt, C. O. (2017). The State and Internally Displaced Teachers in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Brandt, C. O. (2019). Do we know enough about internally displaced people to include them within education systems?

Brandt, Cyril Owen & Gauthier Marchais. 2019. The role of social networks in accessing education in conflict-affected regions in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In: George Clement Bond Center for African Education: Africa Education in Focus, Vol. 13, p.6.

Marchais, G., S. Gupta & C. O. Brandt. 2019. When Structural Marginalisation meets Armed Conflict: Pygmies’ Exclusion from Education in the DR Congo. Oxford: UKFIET Conference. 

Brandt, C.O. & M. Lopes Cardozo. 2019. Teacher well-being in protracted crises: conceptual caveats (Lessons from the DR Congo). Oxford: UKFIET Conference.

Consulting and Policy Advice

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Education in the DR Congo

Since 02/2020

Leading Political Economy of Education Analyses in Kasai, South Kivu and North Kivu provinces (DR Congo)


Technical input for Save the Children's CYERA project proposal

Since 01/2019


Save the Children’s “REALISE” project on educational opportunities for conflict-affected girls in eastern D.R. Congo (via the University of Sussex)


Educational governance, CAMBRIDGE EDUCATION 

D.R. Congo, USAID/UKAID project ACCELERE! 


Teacher remuneration, Cambridge education 

D.R. Congo, USAID/UKAID project ACCELERE! 

Education and International Development


Consultant, IMPACT STUDY, GIZ BACKUP education 

Research on the Global Partnership for Education in Côte d’Ivoire and Uganda 

My research on education in the DR Congo

Drawings by Congolese artist  Aundu Kiala, representing Cyril' s research

Political Economy of Teacher Salaries

Who pays teachers in the DRC? (2nd publication under review)
Why are so many teachers not registered by the government?
    related: Why does noone know the Congolese population number? (publication under review)
How do teachers obtain their salaries? (publication under review)

Decentralisation and educational governance

How does decentralisation affect informal educational expansion?
How does decentralisation affect educational funding?  (publication under review

Education in emergencies

How are teachers deployed in a conflict-affected context?
How do teachers experience conflict-related violence? (publication under review)
Which challenges arise when constructing schools in a conflict area?

Radio France International: Recensement en RDC: chronique d'un fiasco

Radio France International: Census in the DRC: Chronicle of a Fiasco

Memberships & Awards

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International Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

African Studies Centre Leiden


Comparative & International Education Society (CIES)

Unit planner (Special Interest Group: Education, Conflict & Emergencies)



Recipient of Education Development Trust’s Tim Morris Award

Past projects

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Power, poverty and politics in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Funded by DFID, managed by the Overseas Development Institute

Political economy of data collection and statistics in the DRC

My study investigates the attempt to conduct a population census in the DRC. Precise knowledge on the number of people living in the DRC is important for the analysis of, for examplpe, data surveys. However, the last population census in the Congo was carried out in 1984. Since the early 2000s, different groups of domestic and international actors have envisaged a new census, which was formally authorized in 2009. Since then, the Second Population and Housing Census in the DRC (RGPH2) has received funding by several donors (UNDP, World Bank, ABD, UNFPA, and others) but the census has not been executed. This research project is based on empirical qualitative research in the DRC and aims to analyse the unfolding of the census over time. The census continues to tie in supporters and attract funding, thus being a prime example of a project that persists despite the envisaged results. While the research is focused on the population census, this project will also deliver a comparative study between three unachieved censuses in the DRC: civil servants, teachers, population. 

External resources

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Phoenix – for a culture of understanding

Trainer for anti-racism / critical whiteness